Archive for June, 2009
Posted by projectimplicit on June 26, 2009
Posted by projectimplicit on June 22, 2009
[Press release from EurekaAlert]
Implicit stereotypes – thoughts that people may be unwilling to say or not even know that they have – may have a powerful effect on gender equity in science and mathematics engagement and performance, according to a new study published this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
The international study involving more than half a million participants in 34 countries revealed that 70 percent harbor implicit stereotypes associating science with male more than with female. Moreover, countries whose citizens stereotyped more strongly had larger sex gaps favoring boys in eighth-grade science and math achievement.
Implicit stereotypes may contribute to continuing underachievement and under participation among girls and women in science compared to their male peers.
“We found a general tendency, across every country that we investigated, that people on average have an easier time associating science concepts with male, rather than with female,” said lead investigator Brian Nosek, an associate professor of psychology at the University of Virginia.
“We correlated our data with a measure of actual science achievement among eighth graders in those 34 countries and found that in the countries with the largest sex gap – where the boys were performing much better than girls in math and science – there also was strongest implicit stereotyping of science as a male endeavor.”
The science and math achievement scores across nations came from the TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study) and were compared with the implicit stereotype data collected through Project Implicit led by these researchers publishing the study.
Surprisingly, there was no sex gap in the tendency to implicitly stereotype science as male. Male and female study participants showed equally strong associations of science with male.
Among nations represented in the study, the United States falls roughly in the middle of the pack in stereotyping science as male, and in the actual achievement of boys compared to girls at the eighth grade level.
The study is part of Project Implicit, a publicly accessible research and education Web site at which visitors can complete the Implicit Association Test to measure their own implicit associations. The test is available for a variety of topics involving gender, race, religion and politics.
In Project Implicit’s more than 10 years of existence, more than 10 million tests at the Web site have been completed by visitors around the world. A dozen years of research and hundreds of published studies suggest that people have implicit belief systems that may differ from their declared beliefs. These implicit beliefs are related to behavior, such as, interracial behavior, voting, and even drug use. A recent meta-analysis led by Anthony Greenwald, one of the researchers on the current study, provides evidence of the relationship between the IAT and a variety of behaviors from more than 100 studies.
“Participants are often surprised to learn that they may have unconscious biases involving gender or race or religion that are quite different from their stated beliefs,” said Fred Smyth, a co-investigator on the study and research assistant professor at the University of Virginia. This divergence between implicit and explicit beliefs, and the relation of both to behavior, suggests that behavior is influenced both by deliberate, explicit beliefs and by automatic, implicit reactions.
“Culture is a powerful force for shaping the beliefs and behavior of its members,” Nosek said. “Even if one’s explicit beliefs change, the cultural residue may persist in memory and continue to influence behavior.” This presents a challenge for addressing sex gaps in scientific engagement.
Over the past decade, Nosek, Mahzarin Banaji of Harvard University, and test creator Anthony Greenwald of the University of Washington have led the development of the Implicit Association Test to assess mental associations that may be different than what people know or say about themselves. For the gender and science study they worked with colleagues at universities and institutes across the globe.
For additional information about the study see: http://briannosek.com/papers/timss/
Posted by projectimplicit on June 20, 2009
A new featured task measuring relative preferences for religions appeared today at the Demonstration site. The task uses the new Brief IAT (Sriram and Greenwald, in press, Experimental Psychology). The Brief IAT (patent pending) is an efficient version of the IAT allowing measurement of associations with perhaps 1/3 of the trials of a “normal” IAT. The Religion IAT uses a novel 4-category format of the Brief IAT. In this format, it is possible to measure relative associations strengths of four different religions (Christianity, Judaism, Islam and either Hinduism or Buddhism) with good. Feedback is provided visually as a relative ranking of the four religions.
We employed this relative ranking format during the 2008 U.S. presidential primaries as well to obtain relative ranks of the Democratic and Republican candidates. There is no formal manuscript reporting these results, or the methodological details of the 4-category Brief IAT format. Such a manuscript may be forthcoming later this year.
Posted by projectimplicit on June 19, 2009
In the decade since the Implicit Association Test was introduced, its most surprising and controversial finding is its indication that about 70 percent of those who took a version of the test that measures racial attitudes have an unconscious, or implicit, preference for white people compared to blacks. This contrasts with figures generally under 20 percent for self report, or survey, measures of race bias.
A new study published this week validates those findings, showing that the Implicit Association Test, a psychological tool, has validity in predicting behavior and, in particular, that it has significantly greater validity than self-reports in the socially sensitive topics of race, gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation and age.
The research, published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, is an overview and analysis of 122 published and unpublished reports of 184 different research studies. In this analysis, 85 percent of the studies also included self-reporting measures of the type generally used in surveys. This allowed the researchers, headed by University of Washington psychology Professor Anthony Greenwald, to compare the test’s success in predicting social behavior and judgment with the success of self-reports.
“In socially sensitive areas, especially black-white interracial behavior, the test had significantly greater predictive value than self-reports. This finding establishes the Implicit Association Test’s value in research to understand the roots of race and other discrimination,” said Greenwald. “What was especially surprising was how ineffective standard self-report measurers were in the areas in which the test measures have been of greatest interest – predicting interracial behavior.”
Greenwald created the Implicit Association Test in 1998 and he and Mahzarin Banaji, a Harvard psychology professor, and Brian Nosek, a University of Virginia associate professor of psychology, further developed it. Since then the test has been used in more than 1,000 research studies around the world. More than 10 million versions of the test have been completed at an Internet site where they are available as a self-administer demonstration.
The research looked at studies covering nine different areas – consumer preference, black-white interracial behavior, personality differences, clinical phenomena, alcohol and drug use, non-racial intergroup behavior, gender and sexual orientation, close relationships and political preferences.
Findings also showed that:
* Across all nine of these areas, measures of the test were useful in predicting social behavior.
* Both the test, which is implicit, and self-reports, which are explicit, had predictive validity independent of each other. This suggests the desirability of using both types of measure in surveys and applied research studies.
* In consumer and political preferences both measures effectively predicted behavior, but self-reports had significantly greater predictive validity.
Studies in the research came from a number of countries including Germany, the Netherlands, Italy, the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, Poland and the United States. They looked at such topics as attitudes of undecided voters one-month prior to an Italian election; treatment recommendations by physicians for black and white heart attack victims; and reactions to spiders before and after treatment for arachnophobia, or spider phobia.
“The Implicit Association Test is controversial because many people believe that racial bias is largely a thing of the past. The test’s finding of a widespread, automatic form of race preference violates people’s image of tolerance and is hard for them to accept. When you are unaware of attitudes or stereotypes, they can unintentionally affect your behavior. Awareness can help to overcome this unwanted influence,” said Greenwald.